Interactive Chemistry Worksheets for Students
Sodium is an element. It is found in Group I of the Periodic table, the alkali metals. Sodium has a low density which is less than water and is very soft. You can cut sodium with a knife.
The chemical formula of sodium is Na. The symbol is derived from the Latin name natrium.
Sodium reacts violently with water producing hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide.
Sodium and water ==> hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide
2Na + 2H2O ==> H2 + 2NaOH
Sodium metal is stored in paraffin oil to prevent it from reacting with moisture from the air.
Sodium metal is easily oxidized and forms the sodium ion, Na+ when it reacts with other substances. This sodium ion is highly soluble in water and produces a distinctive yellow/ orange flame and emission spectral line when viewed with a spectrophotometer. This is caused by excited electrons in the sodium falling back to a lower energy level an emitting light energy in the process.