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Lithium belongs to Group 1 of the periodic table which is commonly called the Alkali metals.

The element lithium is less dense than water, soft being able to be cut with a knife and very reactive. It is stored in liquid paraffin oil to prevent it from reacting.

When a small piece of lithium is placed in a beaker of water it reacts with the water producing hydrogen gas and lithium hydroxide. The hydrogen can be ignited with a match and lithium ions produce a deep red or crimson flame color.

The flame color for lithium salts is also red-crimson in color.

Lithium is extensively used in batteries. Lithium has a high electrically potential and produces a relatively high voltage compared to other batteries. Lithium metal has a low density which means that lithium batteries are relatively light. These properties make lithium batteries ideal for use in portable appliances such as laptop computers and digital and video cameras.

 

Chemical name: 
Lithium
Chemical symbol: 
Li
Atomic Number: 
3
Electron configuration: 
2.1
Atomic weight: 
6.941 amu
Melting point: 
180 ºC
Boiling point: 
1342 ºC
Physical state: 
Solid
Density: 
0.53 g/cm3