Interactive Chemistry Worksheets for Students
The ammonium ion is a positively charged ion or cation and has the chemical formula, NH4+
Ammonium salts are commonly used in fertilizers. Examples of compounds containing the ammonium ion include, ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 and ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4
All ammonium salts are soluble in water and dissociate or break down to produce aqueous ammonium ions.
eg. ammonium nitrate ==> ammonium ion + nitrate ion
NH4NO3(s) ==> NH4+(aq) + NO3-(aq) where aq = aqueous (surrounded by water) and s = solid
The ammonium ion is formed by the neutralization of the base ammonia, NH3 with and acid
Ammonia + Nitric acid ==> Ammonium nitrate
NH3 + HNO3 ==> NH4NO3
Ammonia + Sulfuric acid ==> Ammonium sulfate
NH3 + H2SO4 ==> (NH4)2SO4
The ammonium ion has one co-ordinate covalent bond which involves the nitrogen atom donating two electrons in one of the N-H bonds.
NH3 + H+ ==> NH4+